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parashas Mikeitz 5782

parashas Mikeitz 5782

“And He called a famine upon the land; He broke the whole staff of bread. He sent a man before them; Joseph was sold for a servant; his feet they hurt with fetters, his person was laid in iron; until the time that his word came to pass, the word of the L-RD tested him. The king sent and loosed him; even the ruler of the peoples, and set him free.” – Psalm 105:16-20, JPS 1917 Tanach

Joseph’s redemption from prison was procured by divine decree. After interpreting Pharaoh’s dreams, he ascended to second in command of Egypt. For Pharaoh had been so impressed with Joseph’s interpretation, and subsequent advice on how to preserve food in light of the seven year famine that was on the horizon, that he put Joseph in charge. This was the beginning of the fulfillment of Joseph’s own dreams of ascension that indicated his rulership, and the bowing down of his brothers to him.

When Jacob sends his (ten) sons, excepting Benjamin, to Egypt in order to purchase food during the famine, the brothers encounter Joseph, who they do not recognize. He decides to take them prisoners, under the pretense that they are spies, in order that one of them would go back to Canaan, to bring Benjamin to Egypt. This would justify their claim that they were all the sons of one man.

However, he states that he “fears G-d,” so he will only keep one of the brothers in prison, send the rest back to their father Jacob with food, and expect their return. When their food supply runs dry, Jacob sends the brothers back to Egypt with Benjamin in order to procure more food. When they return with Benjamin, they all bow down to the Egyptian prince (Joseph). Thus the first dream is fulfilled.

Guilty Conscience


parashas Mikeitz 5781

“And Joseph knew his brethren, but they knew him not.”

– Genesis 42:8, JPS 1917 Tanach

About twenty years after Joseph was rejected by his brothers, thrown into a pit, and sold as a slave to a caravan that passed by Dothan, Joseph ascended to second in charge of Egypt, next to Pharaoh, who placed his entire kingdom at his disposal. Joseph preserved grain during the seven years of plenty that were prophesied in Pharaoh’s dreams. Then, he began to carefully distribute food, at the beginning of the seven years of famine. Jacob’s family needed provisions, for like everyone else on the known earth, they were affected by the famine. So, Jacob sent ten of his sons to Egypt to purchase food, excluding the youngest, Benjamin, “Lest peradventure harm befall him” (Genesis 42:4, JPS).

When the brothers arrived in Egypt, Joseph was in charge of selling grain to all the peoples who looked to Egypt for food. “And Joseph’s brethren came, and bowed down to him with their faces to the earth” (Genesis 42:6, JPS). Thus the dream he had as a youth was only partially fulfilled, so far; yet, in the dream all of his brothers bowed down to him. Although the brothers did not recognize Joseph, he recognized them. They saw an Egyptian prince standing in front of them; Joseph saw his long lost brothers. Yet, he spoke to them harshly, insinuating that they were spies. They said that they were part of a family with twelve sons, “and, behold, the youngest is this day with our father, and one is not” (Genesis 42:13, JPS). So, Joseph declared that if they brought the youngest down to Egypt, that would prove that they were not spies. He put them all in prison for three days; then, he kept Simeon in prison as a surety for their return.

The brothers response to this turn of events was such that they realised that the guilt they incurred because of their prior treatment of Joseph twenty years ago was being requited by a divine judgment against themselves. “And they said one to another: ‘We are verily guilty concerning our brother, in that we saw the distress of his soul, when he besought us, and we would not hear; therefore is this distress come upon us'” (Genesis 42:21, JPS). This is a classic example of “the sins of the heels,” overtaking the transgressor, in the day of retribution. According to the Zohar, the sins that people neglect to acknowledge, will accrue over time, until some evil overtakes the person. The brothers carried a guilty conscience all of those years; yet, not until the tides were turned did they begin to openly admit this to themselves.

We would be wise to learn from this example. The Zohar explains that subconsciously the sins that go disregarded by a person, i.e., sins that are not repented of, remain buried in the self, eliciting an unexplained fear. According to the Zohar, the source of the fear is the prescient sense of judgment that exists, unrealized, below the surface of consciousness. Perhaps, this is the underlying cause for so many people turning away from reflection upon oneself. Instead, we distract ourselves with endless preoccupations, trying to avoid the inevitable.